From Equipment to Driving Safety, The Most Detailed Self-Driving Guide in History

From Equipment to Driving Safety, The Most Detailed Self-Driving Guide in History

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§ On-board equipment

Before traveling by car, it is best to list the items you need to bring and write them on paper. You can put a “tick” on the details for each item you load to avoid omissions.

1. Car: For self-driving travel, the car is of course the most important, preferably SUV, (like JEEP series, Land Rover series is the best, Honda CR-V, Hyundai Tucson, Mitsubishi Outlander, Chery Tiggo are also possible. It is best to add Xenon headlights before and after the luggage rack, tire pressure alarms, GPS satellite positioning and navigation, rear-view reversing radar.) Normal cars can also be used, but it is difficult to cross bad roads and puddles.

The most important thing is to thoroughly inspect your car. Routinely check the oil, coolant, booster oil, and glass water, and focus on checking whether the tires, spare tire pressure and tire wear are normal, and whether there are nails on the tires. If possible, go to the 4S shop and use the computer to check the engine, brakes, ABS and circuit conditions.

2. Road book: It is a detailed travel plan, including where to eat, rest, and lodging. The hotel must be booked in advance and must be booked on a large website. Before departure, be sure to study the map carefully and repeatedly review the travel route. Basically, you should not take the same route when you go out and when you come back to ensure the most scenic spots.

3. Spare tires, jacks, air pumps, tow ropes, fix a flat tire inflator: these are all essentials for self-driving tours.

4. Large-scale national maps and destination tourist guides: prepare a few large-scale maps like the Atlas of China’s Highways and Urban-Rural Highway Networks. They should be large-format and read clearly. The destination travel guide has detailed tourist attractions introduction and precautions such as clothing, food, housing and transportation, which are also very important.

5. Small laptop: It is best to have a wireless internet card. You can surf the Internet and chat during breaks, and send out distress signals in an emergency.

6. Notepad and pen: The person sitting in the co-pilot position is responsible for recording fuel consumption, road conditions and interesting events along the way. If you take the high speed, record the kilometers of the exit and the service area, so that you can walk next time and help friends and netizens.

7. Car walkie-talkie: If it is a team, it is best to buy walkie-talkies. Not only can you save a lot of mobile phone costs, but the walkie-talkies are especially important when there is no signal from the mobile phone. If the fleet has more than 6 vehicles, the fleet is divided into groups. 1 group for every 3 vehicles. This will facilitate driving and effectively prevent rear-end collisions. There is one hand station per person, which is very convenient during camping.

8. CD, DVD: Choose the music you or your family and friends like. Be sure to bring a disco music and listen to it when you are sleepy in the afternoon.

9. Hand-held xenon headlights and strong flashlights: very useful when the car breaks down at night or is camping. Prepare a leather cushion, which is needed when repairing the car.

10. Vehicle-mounted tools and multi-purpose combination pliers: Don’t bring them all, but you must bring them together. The multi-purpose combination pliers are the most useful.

11. Car inverter power supply: when camping, both laptops and mobile phones can be charged.

12. Car start-up line: This is also a must-have for self-driving tours.

13. Metal gasoline drums: For self-driving tours, it is useful to bring two or thirty liters of gasoline. Be sure to use metal buckets, plastic buckets are easy to cause fire.

14. Parking warning signs, planks, engineer spades: available when the car is broken or stuck.
15. Alcohol: Many friends, especially men, travel, drive on donkeys, and stay in hotels at night. If you want a good night’s sleep and drink some liquor to relieve fatigue, you must (Warning: for the safety of you and your family, drink alcohol Don’t move the car again!) The reason why this is listed is because the wine in the hotel is not only expensive, but also often fake. It doesn’t matter if the water is fake, but if the alcohol is fake, it will kill people! A self-driving buddy drank a bottle of fake wine and almost blinded both eyes. Therefore, there is always a box of water and two bottles of good wine in the car. This is a tool-the driver’s lubricant and fatigue relief.

§ Personal equipment

1. ID card, driver’s license, driving license and wallet: it is best to carry money and ID card, driver’s license, driving license, vehicle and vessel usage tax and payment receipts for road tolls, telephone numbers of insurance companies and rescue companies, etc. Documents. Handbags, luggage and other valuables should not be placed in an observable place outside the car when leaving the car, so as not to attract thieves.

Prepare enough cash for self-driving car trips in other places. The tolls, bridge tolls, parking fees and other miscellaneous expenses are needed anytime and anywhere. It is best to prepare enough cash for less than $10. This is not only for your own convenience but also for others. .
2. Bring two sets of car keys: be sure to bring two sets of car keys to prevent the keys from being lost midway.

3. Clothes and others: fleece, jacket, jacket, outdoor shoes, high-top rain boots, hiking shoes, sunglasses, myopia glasses, anti-cracking lipstick, sunscreen, sun hat, inflatable pillow.

You must choose a pair of hiking shoes that fit your feet. The ideal hiking shoe opening needs enough space, even if it is wet or snowy, it can be put on and taken off easily. The tongue of the boot needs to be sufficiently waterproof. The stitch length should be narrow to avoid water intrusion. Toes and heels need 2-3 layers of leather or fabric protection. The front of the toes is hard, so the toes will not be injured by squeezing or kicking hard ice and snow when wearing crampons. The heel is harder to increase the line

4. Multi-purpose headscarf: It can be used as a scarf, headscarf, mask, hat, sweat-absorbent strip, and eye mask when sleeping, especially in the plateau area with strong ultraviolet rays and heavy dust. This headscarf can wrap the entire face. Very useful.

5. Snack food and fruits: chocolate, beef jerky, pork breast, chicken gizzards, American ginseng lozenges, fruit candies, mints, vitamin C lozenges, Ovaltine, Guozhen, etc.; small tomatoes, apples, pears, oranges, Cucumbers, peaches, melons, etc., all of which can replenish physical strength, clear the mind, and play a great role.

6. Photographic equipment and mobile phones: It is necessary to leave good memories during the journey. According to personal hobbies, bring digital SLRs, lenses, digital cameras, camcorders, tripods, flashes, card readers, digital companions, etc. and mobile phones, digital cameras Don’t forget to bring a charger with your phone. It is best to bring your own sealed bags and moisture-proof bags for valuables such as cameras and mobile phones just in case.

7. Water cup: If the temperature is low, it is best to use a thermos cup. Water is an indispensable thing for people.

8. Napkins, wet wipes, toilet paper, toothpicks, nail clippers: these are personal essential items.

9. Toothpaste, toothbrush, cup, towel, razor, shampoo: these are also personal essential items.

10. Playing cards and chewing gum: You can play cards and have fun when you are resting. It is good to eat a piece of chewing gum after a meal.

11. Anti-mosquito toilet water, cooling oil, and wind oil: these are all essentials for travel.

12. Backpacks: Mountaineering bags are divided into two categories, one is a large backpack with a volume between 50-80 liters; the other is a small backpack with a volume between 20-35 liters, also known as “assault bags.” The backpack for mountaineering is designed to cope with extreme environments. It is exquisitely made and unique. The body is generally thin and long. The back of the bag is designed according to the natural curve of the human body, so that the body is close to the person’s back to reduce the pressure of the strap on the shoulders. Such bags are generally made of waterproof and tear-proof materials, which are very durable.

13. Trekking poles: can be used as walking sticks, trekking poles, tripods.

14. Umbrellas and raincoats: These are essential items for travel.

15. Mountain bike: Bicycles can go to places where cars can’t go, which is very useful.

16. Fishing equipment: bring it if you like fishing.

§ Field survival box

When traveling or exploring in the wild, in addition to the professional equipment, it is recommended that you bring a small field first aid kit (or you can also call it a “wild survival kit”). Regardless of its small size, it will play a big role at critical moments.

1. Box: It is best to choose an aluminum or stainless steel lunch box (preferably one with a handle). Because the lunch box itself can be used to heat, lift water or melt snow, all of which can play a role. Although the plastic box is light, it cannot be heated, and its use is limited. At the same time, the metal cover of the lunch box can be used as a reflector to send out distress signals at critical moments. Use a large size to facilitate the loading of the following items.

2. Medications: Disinfecting sand cloth, hemostatic bandages, band-aids, cold medicine, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-gun pill, indigestion medicine, antibiotics, berberine, anti-motion sickness medicine, vitamin pills, eye drops, safflower oil, Fengyoujing and one Small bottle of alcohol cotton ball etc. These are essential supplies for first aid.

3. Medical tape: Don’t underestimate any gadget, it is the fastest repair agent. When your coat is torn and your tent is blown torn apart, its effect is revealed. Although its basic function is to stick gauze, if you use your imagination a little bit, you can find that it can come in much more useful.

4. Swiss Army Knife: It is absolutely necessary to equip a multifunctional utility knife in the field. Although it is not necessary to use a jungle fighting knife similar to that used by Rambo, the Swiss Army knife is essential. In addition to integrating conventional knives, screwdrivers, scissors, saws, screwdrivers, files, etc., it even has a magnifying glass! It is best to be large.

5. Sewing kit: Whether in the era of the Long March of the Red Army or in the modern army, the sewing kit has always been a must-have for the army. Of course, the function of modern sewing kits is not only the original simple sewing and repairing, the needles can not only pick thorns, but also bend into fish hooks in some cases, improve food, and even save lives (of course, your sewing kit must be equipped with at least two Fishing line).

6. Match: In the wild, fire is almost everything. It is important to bring wind and waterproof matches, but if you can’t buy such matches, you can DIY some of them yourself. The method is very simple. First melt the candle and apply it evenly on the ordinary match. When using it, remove the wax on the head of the match. In order to make better use of the “powerful” windproof and waterproof function of our DIY matches, you can put them in an empty film box. Phosphorus skins (used for wiping matches) must not be forgotten, otherwise our DIY efforts will be useless.

7. Candles: A small section of candles is absolutely useful in the field. The flashlights, headlights and other modern lighting devices you bring will become furnishings as the battery runs out. The candle at this time shows its “heroic qualities”. In addition to lighting, candles can also be used for warmth (but don’t use your fingers as potatoes to be baked) and start a fire. If you cut off the bottom of a mineral water bottle to make a lampshade, you will have a windproof lamp for outdoor use. Its “power” is large enough and the work efficiency is improved a lot.

8. Survival whistle: In fact, it is a general whistle, but in the wild, the role of a whistle is not just a black whistle blown on the court. Now it can save your life. When you are in distress, you can use the whistle to attract rescue, or scare away some small beasts (but if it is a tiger, bear and other beasts, not speaking is the best choice).

9. Aluminum film: This is a 2×2 meter aluminized film, available in gold and silver. It can not only prevent wind and rain, but also can be set up to make a pergola to prevent direct sunlight. In cold areas, you can wrap yourself with it to keep your body temperature. The biggest function of the aluminum film is to reflect light so that rescuers can find you in time. You can also spread it on the ground and use it as a local mat.

10. Compass: Even if you have a GPS, your watch has an electronic compass. Some primitive compasses are still essential. In the wild, no one can guarantee that the advanced equipment will not go wrong. At this time, a small compass can help you find your way home.

11. Dovetail clip: Although it is a very common office equipment, it can play a role in many unexpected situations in the field. It has been used to clip broken backpack straps, open trousers, shoes that have taken off the bottom… Although we don’t want it to work, it may be useful to have a few more.

12. Pencil: I want to write something in the field, what pen? Parker? No, the most expensive is not necessarily the best. The harsh environment in the wild makes the pencil our best and only choice. It is recommended to choose a pencil above 2B, and of course, bring a small pencil sharpener. You can also use mechanical pencils, but you must bring enough refills.

13. Paper: It’s best to be a post-it, if it is white, it is better.

14. Several bottles: put salt, fruit candy, and vitamin C respectively. These humble foods may be a life-saving medicine in a crisis.

15. Waterproof ziplock bag: It can prevent some things from being damp and moldy, such as mobile phone batteries, digital camera batteries, matches, etc.

Finally, it is recommended that you put a waterproof sealed bag on the outside of the first aid box (a household refrigerator sealed fresh-keeping bag is fine, if you prepare a professional waterproof bag, everything is OK.

§ Outdoor camping equipment

1. Tent: The first step in choosing a tent is to choose the style, dome style or channel style. Dome-style tents are supported by more than two poles, and can basically be erected without ground nails. Channel tents basically need to be built with ground nails, so they have good wind resistance. It is mainly used in high mountain and windy environments. If it is on a hard ground such as cement, the only way to press the tent’s support point is to use large heavy stones. The second choice tent pole. Tent poles are mostly fiberglass poles, with a small amount of aluminum alloy poles. The price of fiberglass rod is cheap, but heavier. However, the fiberglass rod will break under the impact of high cold environment and sudden heavy pressure. The third step is to look at the tent cloth. For a good tent, the tent fabric is the key point, especially the rainproof performance of the outer tent fabric. This indicator is still calculated based on the number of mm of water column per square centimeter. The high-quality rain-proof tarpaulin not only has a high rain-proof index, but also has a thick tape at the joint of the awning line to prevent water seepage at the seam.

2. Sleeping bags: Sleeping bags can be divided into two categories according to their uses: A. Ordinary sleeping bags: thinner, used for general travel or camping, mostly in spring, summer and autumn. B. Professional sleeping bag: used in colder environment, even some adventure activities. High-quality ordinary sleeping bag, the sleeping bag fabric is made of nylon with certain ventilation function, and the warm layer is made of advanced microfiber cotton. Real professional sleeping bags, especially high-quality adventure sleeping bags, are inseparable from down. According to the owner, down sleeping bags are generally lighter than cotton sleeping bags, and have good thermal performance. There is a kind of imitated goose down sleeping bag, which is very light and can be folded into the bag as big as the palm of the hand, which can save a lot of space for the bag.

3. Moisture-proof pad: Under relatively harsh outdoor conditions, moisture-proof pads can solve the problem of moisture-proof and warmth. Do not underestimate the effect of moisture-proof pads on human health. Moisture-proof mats are generally laid in tents and can be used as mats to sleep directly on them. The types of moisture-proof pads are: foam pads, aluminum film pads, inflatable pads, automatic inflatable pads, etc. The price is $2-$15.

4. Camping lights, headlights: According to needs, you can choose emergency lights, battery lights, steam lights or OSRAM camp lights, and headlights are also necessary.

5. Barbecue stove and lighter: Large, medium and small can be selected according to the number of people. The lighter should be windproof.

6. Cooking utensils: a small gas stove, a large, medium and small stainless steel pot, used for boiling water, cooking rice and cooking. Don’t forget the cooking spatula, spoon, table knife, tableware and cups, and thermos.

7. Folding tables, chairs, and big sun umbrellas: all for eating and resting.

8. Purified water: At least one box is always available in the car, and the quantity can be prepared according to the number of people.

9. Food: Fresh beef, pork, seafood, vegetables and fruits, but also some canned food and mustard chips. Prepare the number according to the number of people. Barbecue? The meat is best to be marinated with pickled peppers and barbecue sauce in advance. The Xinjiang roasting method is a bit outdated. You can buy some seafood to bring to the market. We once brought the seafood into the desert (use a foam box with frozen mineral water to seal it) ), in the desert, under the sunset, grilling seafood and eating Erguotou, it is very delicious.

10. Seasonings and spices: salt, chicken essence, vegetable oil, soy sauce for banquets, vinegar, hot sauce, spicy powder, thirteen incense, rice wine, white wine, etc.

11. Alcohol: beer, rice wine, white wine, wine, etc., according to personal preference, drinking during a picnic is very comfortable.

12. Binoculars: viewing distant scenery from a high place, and can also be used when looking for picnic and camping locations.

13. Hammock: the best place for a short rest.

14. Mosquito spray: This is a must-have for camping.

 § Precautions for the team drving

1. Number the fleet before departure, and basically drive in the order of numbering while driving.

2. At passing toll gates or red light intersections, vehicles are dispersed in the queue to save passing time. After passing toll gates, the fleet drives slowly or pulls over and pauses in order to organize the formation.

3. Pay special attention to refueling. It must be at a regular gas station in a large place. Don’t try to refuel at a small place for cheap. Once my friend and I refueled at a small gas station in Yuncheng, Shanxi, but the car failed to run for 100 kilometers and the oil pipe was blocked and the car broke on the high-speed kilometers. All plans fell through.

4. Pay attention to keeping a proper distance while driving, and don’t follow the car too close. When the convoy overtakes a slow car, the vehicles that have passed are responsible for reporting the road conditions ahead for their vehicles behind them and guiding them to overtake. Do not force overtaking unless the road conditions are clear.

5. According to the driving situation, the fleet chooses an appropriate place for temporary rest during the journey, and each owner is responsible for taking care of the occupants of the vehicle. In case of temporary parking in traffic congestion, asking for directions, etc., all occupants should try not to leave the vehicle.

6. If accidents such as bumps occur in the field, you must exercise restraint and calmness to avoid aggravation. If the traffic smashes poultry and livestock on the road, under normal circumstances, the convoy should keep passing at full speed and do not get out of the car immediately.

7. Keep in touch with your mobile phone while the convoy is driving. Do not use your mobile phone to play music or press the launch button for a long time to chat.

8. If you find an abnormal situation or need to stop temporarily while driving, please report it via your mobile phone immediately.

9. Please pay attention to charging in time when you arrive at the accommodation.

§ Precautions for vehicle driving

To have a safe and happy self-driving tour, the human factor is more important than the car.

1. Check the vehicle before departure every day: Before departure every day, conduct a comprehensive inspection of the vehicle, including whether there is any oil or water leakage (check whether there are oil and sewage marks on the ground under the car); measure the tire pressure and check the tire pressure Whether it is suitable; check the oil condition (pulling out the oil dipstick to see if the color of the oil on it is normal and the oil height is appropriate); don’t forget to check if the spare tire is intact, etc. After starting, drive at low speed in the second gear and check the brakes Check whether the brakes are working properly, and confirm that everything is normal before switching to normal driving.

2. Refuel in time: fill up the car before running a long distance. When the fuel volume is less than half on the way, you should go to the big gas station you pass by. Don’t wait for the fuel light to turn on and then look for the gas station. This will be very passive.
3. Strictly prevent fatigue driving: For long-distance driving, we should first avoid fatigue driving. Fatigue driving is one of the main causes of accidents. If you have a co-pilot, it’s better to rotate every 2 hours. If you feel tired, you should stop for a while and don’t try to drive.

4. Check the tires: Traffic accidents caused by punctured tires at high speed are the most frequent and the most dangerous. Therefore, before traveling, be sure to check the wear on the tire surface to see if there are bulges and cracks on the surface. If there are hard injuries caused by blunt tools, they must be repaired and maintained before traveling. If possible, it is best to remove the tire and check whether there are wounds on the inside of the tire, because the wounds hidden on the inside are often the culprit of the accident. If there is no time for meticulous tire inspection and replacement, at least the problematic tire must be changed to the rear wheel to minimize the occurrence of accidents.

5. Pay attention to the use of seat belts: seat belts can sometimes provide you with as much protection as airbags when the car is hit hard. Don’t drive fatigued, take a break every 2 hours.

6. Children should sit in the back seat as much as possible: During long-distance driving, children should not be placed in the front seat alone. Because many cars are equipped with airbags in the front passenger position, the impact force when the airbag pops out is great. Although it can ensure the safety of adults, it can cause accidental injuries to children.

7. Do not stick scent bottles and various glass and metal ornaments on the dashboard in front of the co-pilot: It is recommended that you place them on the dashboard in the middle of the driver and co-pilot, so as to be beautiful and safe. follow traffic rules. Especially on expressways, don’t drive at a high speed, because our expressways are designed according to certain speed standards. Speeding may not only be punished by traffic police, but more importantly, it is unsafe. Statistics show that if an explosion occurs at a speed of 150km/h or more In a tire accident, the chance of a fatal accident is quite high!

8. Do not brake suddenly: driving in winter may encounter icy and slippery roads. At this time, the gear and engine braking should be used to slow down the speed. Do not step on the sudden brake. If it is a four-wheel drive, you should put on a four-wheel drive. It can greatly reduce the risk of losing control of the vehicle due to four-wheel skidding.
Special note: In case of snow and icy roads, installing snow chains on the driving wheels is an effective safety precaution.

9. Pay attention to sharp bends: driving on mountain roads tends to have many and sharp bends. At this time, you must not overtake in a curve or take a turn without knowing whether there is an oncoming car ahead. Slow down and whistle before turning. It should be noted that some riders like to tangentially turn when cornering, but when driving on mountain roads, do not cut to the opposite lane!

Special note: In the northern mountainous areas, there are often long-term snow and icing conditions on the road on the shady side of the mountain, that is, the road on the mountain side is in good condition, but the road suddenly deteriorates after a turn. At this time, it is easy to happen if you drive in at high speed. The danger of slipping out of control, so you must control the speed of the car.

10. Drive to the side: When driving on a narrow cliff side mountain road, do not drive to the side of the mountain, because the edge of the cliff road may collapse at any time, which is more dangerous. And if the convoy passes through the rockfall area, it should drive at a distance of 30-40 meters. During this period, try not to honk the horn and slam the throttle to avoid rockfall.

11. Don’t slide in neutral gear: riders going to the southwest and northwest regions often encounter long slopes up and down. When going up a long slope, pay attention to downshifting in time to avoid insufficient engine output torque; when going down a long slope, pay attention to avoid the brake pads from overheating due to long-term use. Therefore, the gear should be used as much as possible to limit the speed of the car. Enter low gear and use engine braking to avoid excessive vehicle speed. Never slide in neutral gear. For automatic transmission vehicles, gears such as D2 and D1 can play the same role. If you still need to apply the brakes for a long time, you should drive for a certain distance. Stop and let the braking system cool down before moving forward.

12. Don’t drive fighting cars: Do not drive hero cars and fighting cars at any time, especially avoid fighting against local vehicles, driving politely, and driving the vehicle calmly can reduce the chance of accidents.

13. Try to avoid night driving: If you really need to drive at night, pay special attention to the following points:

A: When driving at night during the journey, pay attention to pedestrians crossing the road from the left. Pedestrians often run out from the middle of the convoy and cross the road from left to right. At this time, if the opposite vehicle turns on the high beam, it is difficult for the driver to stay far away. Found everywhere.

B: Actively switch to the low beam when meeting the car. Do not use the high beam to illuminate the oncoming car. If you are irradiated by the high beam of the oncoming car and cannot see the road clearly, stop and wait to see the road clearly before moving on.

C: Due to limited vision at night, it is impossible to observe the entire road and surrounding environment as during the day, so you must drive at a speed limit.

14. Be careful with water: If the road is flooded, it is necessary to understand the water depth and underwater road conditions to see if the capacity of the vehicle is exceeded. Generally, for a car, it is not suitable to take risks when the water depth exceeds half the height of the tires of the car Wading. When wading, the low-speed gear should be engaged so that the car can enter the water smoothly from the shore to avoid splashing. Keep the engine with sufficient power while driving, and avoid stopping, shifting gears or hitting the steering wheel suddenly. After landing, drive for a certain distance at a low speed, and lightly step on the brake pedal several times to cause friction between the brake shoes and the brake drum, so that the attached moisture will be heated and evaporate. After the braking efficiency is restored, switch to normal driving.

15. Be careful of car trapping: If you are driving to river beaches and beaches, be careful of car trapping accidents, especially when driving to the beach, understand the local tide conditions, otherwise flooding may occur.
§ Driving skills for self-driving tour

1. Falling snow in winter is the time that causes the most car accidents. It is necessary to brake continuously on snowy flat roads, and use low gears for downhill roads. It is best not to stop on uphill roads in case you cannot start. In normal exercise, you can drag the gear appropriately (low speed and high gear) to increase forward resistance. When the rear wheel is swinging left and right, turn the steering wheel in the swing direction.

2. If there is a big car (full load) ahead of you in the same direction and does not give you way, follow it closely, find the right opportunity to pass it.

3. If the car runs out of gas in the open country, stop a big car and use a pipe to suck out a few liters of oil from his car. No. 70 oil does not matter. Don’t block the trolley. Generally, trolleys cannot pump oil.

4. Continuously descend the mountain, the brake pads are overheated and the brake is not effective, stop and wait for natural cooling. Never use water for cooling.

5. If you are driving in the middle of the night, you must continuously change the far and near beam lights when meeting the car to remind the other party to pay attention, the other party may be dozing off. If the opponent’s high beam is not turned off, slow down in advance to prevent unidentified objects such as tractors in the same direction.

6. During the day when driving on mountain roads, you must drive in your own lane (you can’t see the opposite). When turning downhill at high speed, you must slow down in advance.

7. Don’t stop at the turn when parking temporarily in the field. Don’t stop if you have poor visibility in a certain direction, a steep slope, a suspicious person staying, or other places where you feel unstable.

8. If you drive for a long time (continuously exercise for more than 3 hours), adjust the driver’s seat backward to the maximum, and drive on your back to reduce physical fatigue, and develop this habit (not suitable for short stature).

9. Be aware of slippery roads when it rains because there is oil stains on the road. When excessive rain accumulates on the road, do not increase the throttle flush to avoid water ingress into the brakes and electrical parts. Drive at a low gear and speed.
§ Safety precautions for self-driving tours

1. It is recommended that novices do not rent a car to travel by car. The natives who have just learned to drive, are not familiar with cars and are prone to accidents.

2. When parking on the side of the road or at night, be sure to check whether the doors and windows are locked; at the same time, do not expose and leave valuables in the car, so as not to cause passers-by to suddenly feel bad and take risks.

3. Try to avoid driving at night. Regardless of the danger of looting, the fatigue of driving at night is also prone to catastrophe.

4. When running a long distance, fill up the fuel tank before departure; if the destination is remote, consider bringing some fuel by yourself. If you bring your own fuel, use a fully enclosed, metal-clad safety container.

5. For long-distance driving, it is best to choose a person who understands basic vehicle repair skills; at the same time, if possible, it is best to travel with two or more vehicles to take care of each other.

6. Every 2-3 hours of driving, it is best to stop and take a break. This can avoid the danger of fatigue driving and prevent long-term driving from harming your health; in addition, it is also helpful to alleviate the fatigue damage caused by long-distance driving.

7. Don’t take strangers casually, and put self-defense equipment, fire extinguishers, and anti-theft locks in convenient places to prevent accidents.

8. Keep your phone book with you and write your name, unit, phone number of your relatives and friends on the first page. In the event of an accident, the rescuer can get in touch with your family in time.

9. Control the speed of the car. Traveling on open and straight avenues, people are prone to speeding due to excitement, leading to danger.

10. Prepare enough money for travel. In addition to the estimated expenses and credit cards, be sure to prepare some extra cash in case of small accidents such as scratching.

§  Eight ways to teach you to use maps

1. Buy a suitable city tourist map. The most common is the city traffic map, such as Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing and other places are equipped with corresponding travel tips. The price of a city map is about 3-5 yuan, which can be bought at regular bookstores and newsstands. In addition, you can get free simple maps from some hotels.

2. If you are traveling abroad, you can mark your place of residence after opening the map and remember the name of the two-way road to which the place belongs, so that you can report the direction when you take a taxi. Find the following important landmarks from the map: the most prosperous commercial areas in the city, well-known food areas, transportation hubs such as airports and railway stations, so as to have a general understanding of the city layout.

3. Tourists will often see some hotels, restaurants and other commercial information on the map. These are generally the sponsors of the map and cannot be completely equal to the highest level of the local area. Try to follow the various “treasure places” passed down in books, on the Internet and word of mouth among travel friends, and note them on the map.

4. How to save a map is also a university question. Due to paper limitations, generally speaking, a map is completely unrecognizable after a complete three-day self-guided tour. How to deal with it, some old travellers’ method is very simple, put these maps in the compact compartment of the backpack or clip them in the magazine book.

5. Compared with city maps, the maps of mountainous spots are more important, such as Huangshan Mountain and Qingcheng Mountain. Not only are there many scenic spots on the mountain, but the routes to the mountain are also different. How to choose the most labor-saving and worthwhile path is extremely important. Therefore, it is not an exaggeration to spend five minutes studying the map before going up the mountain. Remember, don’t be greedy for everything, so as to avoid your feet drifting down the mountain. In addition, no matter how detailed the map is, it is often due to various limiting factors, and it is inevitable that there will be omissions. You should inquire about it carefully from nearby residents or other activities to facilitate identification.

6. Although the practicality of the hand-drawn map is not as good as the regular map, in addition to its strong artistry, some local characteristic travel tips will be attached to the hand-drawn map. For example, the map of the ancient town of Lijiang has scenic spots, origins of local cuisine, and worthwhile Small information such as recommended tourist souvenirs, these neutral information are often highly credible.

7. With the publication of various exquisite travel books and magazines, some unique out-of-print maps will appear accordingly. For example, whenever a topic is selected for food, there will be special food travel maps and practical information, which are also very useful. In addition, friends traveling by car outside should keep some road book maps, among which business express hotel information is more important.

8. How to identify fake and shoddy maps? First, take a look at the month and year the map was published. Some counterfeiters often write “latest” on old map materials, so be careful when you see a map with “latest time” on it. Take a look at the copyright page of the map and check the publisher and author. Some pirated maps are of low printing quality, with many typos, untrue colors, and blurred graphics. This is a common problem when pirated maps are scanned with genuine maps and produced on computers.

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